CDC-defined diseases and opportunistic infections in Jamaican children with HIV/AIDS.


OBJECTIVE: To document the frequency of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-defined clinical conditions, opportunistic and co-infections among children with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: This prospective, observational study reports the findings of 110 HIV-infected children followed in multicentre ambulatory clinics during September 1, 2002, to August 31, 2003, from the 239 children enrolled in the Kingston Paediatric and Perinatal HIV/AIDS Programme, Jamaica. We describe the clinico-pathologic characteristics of these children with HIV/AIDS, using the CDC criteria. RESULTS: The client distribution by clinic site was as follows: the University Hospital of the West Indies, 71 (64.6%), Bustamante Hospital for Children, 23 (20.9%), Comprehensive Health Centre 13 (11.8/%) and Spanish Town Hospital, 3 (2.7%). The median age of the 110 children with HIV/AIDS was 6.0 years (range 0.9-17.5). Mode of transmission was primarily mother-to-child (88.0%) and only 4% maternal/infant pairs received antiretroviralprophylaxis. Grouped by CDC category: 17 (15.4%) were asymptomatic (N), 22 (20.0%) mildly symptomatic (A), 30 (27.3%) moderately symptomatic (B) and 41 (37.3%) severely symptomatic (C). The most common CDC-defining symptoms were lymphadenopathy (12, 42.8%) and asymptomatic (6, 21.4%) in category N; lymphadenopathy (30, 29.7%), dermatitis (20, 19.8%) and persistent or recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (20, 19.8%) in category A; bacterial sepsis (18, 34.6%) and recurrent diarrhoea (11, 21.2%) in category B; and wasting (28, 30.0%), encephalopathy (26, 27.9%), and serious bacterial infections (15, 16.1%) in category C; Pulmonary tuberculosis (7, 7.5%) and Pneumocystis (jiroveci) carinii pneumonia; (5, 5.4%) were the most frequent opportunistic infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae (10, 30.3%) was the most common invasive bacterial pathogen causing sepsis and Escherichia coli (14, 34.2%) was the most common bacterial pathogen causing urinary tract infections, among the cohort. Thirty-three per cent commenced antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). There were 57 hospitalizations and five deaths. CONCLUSIONS: The study is an important step toward documentation of the natural history of paediatric HIV/AIDS in a primarily ARV-naive population from a developing country. It promotes training in paediatric HIV management as we move toward affordable access to antiretroviral agents in the wider Caribbean and the implementation of clinical trials.

The West Indian medical journal