Retained placenta in homozygous sickle cell disease.


OBJECTIVE: To document an increased prevalence of retained placenta in mothers with homozygous sickle cell disease. METHODS: A retrospective review (January 1, 1992, to December 31, 2005) at the University Hospital of the West Indies revealed 174 singleton deliveries in women with sickle cell disease who were matched by delivery date and age 1:1 with 174 mothers with normal hemoglobin phenotype. Cesarean delivery in 62 mothers (36%) with sickle cell and in 41 women with normal hemoglobin (24%) left 112 sickle cell and 133 normal hemoglobin pregnancies with spontaneous deliveries. Retained placenta was defined by an interval of at least 30 minutes. Duration and details of the third stage of delivery were obtained by review of records. Duration of delivery stages was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival charts and tested using the log rank test. Known risk factors were sought by logistic regression or exact logistic regression when the number of outcomes was small. RESULTS: First-stage duration was similar in maternal genotypes (sickle cell 470 minutes [median] compared with normal hemoglobin 335 minutes [median]), but in sickle cell disease, the second stage was slightly delayed (sickle cell 16 minutes compared with normal hemoglobin 15 minutes) and the third stage (sickle cell 7 minutes compared with normal hemoglobin 6 minutes). Retained placenta occurred in 20 mothers (17.9%) with sickle cell (interval 30-340 minutes) compared with four among the women in the control group (3.0%, 30-107 minutes). Apart from a weak association with combined oxytocin and misoprostol, there were no significant associations with known risk factors or with hematologic indices within sickle cell disease. CONCLUSION: Retained placenta is common among mothers with sickle cell disease, and the lack of association with known risk factors suggests that maternal sickle cell disease may be a risk factor. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

Obstetrics and gynecology