AIMS: With regards to insulin initiation in Barbados we explored primary care doctor (PCD) perception, healthcare system factors and predictors of PCD reluctance to initiate insulin. METHODS: PCDs completed a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and a reluctance to initiate insulin scale. Using linear regression, we explored the association between TPB domains and the reluctance to initiate insulin scale. RESULTS: Of 161 PCDs, 70% responded (75 private and 37 public sector). The majority felt initiating insulin was uncomplicated (68%) and there was benefit if used before complications developed (68%), but would not use it until absolutely necessary (58%). More private than public sector PCDs (p<0.05) thought that the healthcare system allowed enough flexibility of time for education (68 vs 38%) and initiating insulin was easy (63 vs 35%), but less thought system changes would help initiating insulin (42 vs 70%). Reasons for reluctance to initiate insulin included patient nonadherence (83%) and reluctance (63%). Only the attitudes and belief domain of the TPB was associated with the reluctance to initiate insulin scale (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focusing on PCD attitudes and beliefs and restructuring services inclusive of the use of diabetes specialist nurses are required.